The Hon Sir Gerard Brennan AC KBE
former Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia
Conference Committee:
Suri Ratnapala, Professor of Public Law, UQ
Thomas John, Chair, European Focus Group, LCA
Nicholas Aroney, Reader in Law, UQ
Hendryk Flaegel, International Law Section, LCA

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Current examples of two-sided federalism: Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two entities: Republika Srpska and Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Historical examples of two-sided federalism include: Czechoslovakia, until the Czech Republic and Slovakia separated in 1993. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, from 1992 to 2003 when it became a confederation titled the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. This confederation expired 2006 as Montenegro declared its independence. The 1960 Constitution of Cyprus was based on the same ideas, but the union of Greeks and Turks failed. United Republic of Tanzania (formerly United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar), which was the union of Tanganika and Zanzibar. Iraq adapted a federal system in 15 October 2005, and formally recognized the Kurdistan Region as the county's first and currently only federal region. See Constitution of Iraq for more information regarding Iraq's method of creating federal entities. The Federal Republic of Cameroun operated between 1961 and 1972 On the other hand, Belgian federalism is federated with three components. An ffirmative resolution concerning Brussels' place in the federal system passed in the parliaments of Wallonia and Brussels.[14][15] These resolutions passed against the desires of Dutch-speaking parties, who are generally in favour of a federal system with two components (i.e. the Dutch and French Communities of Belgium). However, the Flemish representatives in the Parliament of the Brussels Capital-Region voted in favour of the Brussels resolution, with the exception of one party. The chairman of the Walloon Parliament stated on July 17, 2008 that, "Brussels would take an attitude".[16] Brussels' parliament passed the resolution on July 18, 2008: The Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region approves with great majority a resolution claiming the presence of Brussels itself at the negotiations of the reformation of the Belgian State.[15] July 18, 2008 This aspect of Belgian federalism helps to explain the difficulties of partition; Brussels, with its importance, is linked to both Wallonia and Flanders and vice-versa. This situation, however, does not erase the traits of a confederation in the Belgian system.

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