The Hon Sir Gerard Brennan AC KBE
former Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia
Conference Committee:
Suri Ratnapala, Professor of Public Law, UQ
Thomas John, Chair, European Focus Group, LCA
Nicholas Aroney, Reader in Law, UQ
Hendryk Flaegel, International Law Section, LCA

Federal republic

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A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. Usage of the term republic is inconsistent but, as a minimum, it means a state or federation of states that does not have a monarch. In a federal republic, there is a division of powers between the national ("federal") government, and the government of the individual subdivisions. While each federal republic manages this division of powers differently, national security and defense, monetary policy, and other issues of a "national" scope are handled at the "federal" level while more local issues such as road and infrastructure maintenance and education policy are handled at the local level. However, views differ on what issues sho ld be of sub-divisional governmental structures, the subdivisions also have sovereignty in some matters where the federal government does not have jurisdiction. This is in contrast to a unitary republic whereby the national government has complete sovereignty over all aspects of political life. In this case, regional structures of governanthe regional bodies or states on issues affecting the whole. The federal republic is a form of government used by many countries around the world and it can take almost any form- from aristocracies to democracies to tyrannies. As in the United States, many federal republics are Constitutional Republics which seek to ensure the rights of individuals and groups within the republic.

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