The Hon Sir Gerard Brennan AC KBE
former Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia
Conference Committee:
Suri Ratnapala, Professor of Public Law, UQ
Thomas John, Chair, European Focus Group, LCA
Nicholas Aroney, Reader in Law, UQ
Hendryk Flaegel, International Law Section, LCA

Example in Europe

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Several federal systems exist in Europe, such as in Switzerland, Austria, Germany, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the European Union. Germany and the EU are the only examples in the world where members of the federal upper houses, (the Bundesrat and the Council), are neither elected nor appointed but are composed of the governments of their constituents. In Germany, federalism was abolished only during Nazism (19331945) and in East Germany during most of its existence (19521990). Adolf Hitler viewed federalism as an obstacle to his goals. As he wrote in Mein Kampf, "National Socialism must cla m the right to impose its principles on the whole German nation, without regard to what were hitherto the confines of federal states."[page needed] Therefore the idea of a strong, centralized government has negative associations in German politics, although prior to 1919 or 1933, many social democrats and liberals favored centralization in principle.[citation needed] Since earlier in Britain, an Imperial Federation was once seen as a method of solving the Home Rule problem in Ireland, federalism has long been proposed as a solution to the "Irish Problem", and more lately, the "West Lothian question".

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